Operational Analytics is a new feature in SQL Server 2016. It changes the indexing on database table so it supports both OLTP and Analytical Operations.
Until now, running analytical functions against a live transactional SQL Server database has not been an option, because the design of the underlying model fits a transactional system and not for crunching big datasets. SQL Server 2016 offers the ability to run analytics against live data, this makes the analytical data up to date to the last transaction. Also this is done without negative performance effects.
SQL Server 2016 introduces a new type of Columnstore index for real-time Operational Analytics. It supports updateable Non-Clustered Columnstore Index (NCCI). This will allow OLTP and OLAP to running at the same time.